Objective: - To update French oncology guidelines concerning penile cancer.
Methods: - Comprehensive Medline search between 2018 and 2020 upon diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of testicular germ cell cancer to update previous guidelines. Level of evidence was evaluated according to AGREE-II.
Results: - Epidermoid carcinoma is the most common penile cancer histology. Physical examination is mandatory to define local and inguinal nodal cancer stage. MRI with artificial erection can help to assess deep infiltration in cases of organ-sparing intention. Node negative patients (defined by palpation and imaging) will present micro nodal metastases in up to 25% of cases. Invasive lymph node assessment is thus advocated except for low risk patients. Sentinel node dynamic biopsy is the first line technique. Modified bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy is an option with higher morbidity. 18-FDG-PET is recommended in patients with palpable nodes. Chest, abdominal and pelvis computerized tomography is an option. Fine needle aspiration (when positive) is an easy way to assess inguinal palpable node pathological involvement. Its results determine the type of lymphadenectomy to be performed (for diagnostic or curative purposes). Treatment is mostly surgical. Free margins status is essential, but it also has to be organ-sparing when possible. Brachytherapy and topic agents can cure in selected cases. Lymph node assessment should be synchronous to the removal of the tumour when possible. Limited inguinal lymph node involvement (pN1 stage) can be cured with the only lymphadenectomy. In case of larger lymph node stage, one should consider multidisciplinary treatment including chemotherapy and inclusion in a trial.
Conclusions: - Penile cancer needs demanding surgery to be cured, surrounded by chemotherapy in node positive patients. Lymph nodes involvement is a major prognostic factor. Thus, inguinal node assessment cannot be neglected.